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8th Grade Final Exam: Salina, KS - 1895

This is the eighth-grade final exam from 1895 from Salina, KS. It was taken from the original document on file at the Smoky Valley Genealogical Society and Library in Salina, KS and reprinted by the Salina Journal.


(Time, one hour)

1. Give nine rules for the use of Capital Letters.

2. Name the Parts of Speech and define those that have no modifications.

3. Define Verse, Stanza and Paragraph.

4. What are the Principal Parts of a verb? Give Principal Parts of do, lie, lay and run.

5. Define Case, Illustrate each Case.

6. What is Punctuation? Give rules for principal marks of Punctuation.

7 - 10. Write a composition of about 150 words and show therein that you understand the practical use of the rules of grammar.


(Time, 1.25 hours)

1. Name and define the Fundamental Rules of Arithmetic.

2.  A wagon box is 2 ft. deep, 10 feet long, and 3 ft. wide. How many bushels of wheat will it hold?

3.  If a load of wheat weighs 3942 lbs., what is it worth at 50 cts. per bu., deducting 1050 lbs. for tare?

4. District No. 33 has a valuation of $35,000. What is the necessary levy to carry on a school seven months at  $50 per month, and have $104 for incidentals?

5.  Find cost of 6720 lbs. coal at $6.00 per ton.

6.  Find the interest of $512.60 for 8 months and 18 days at 7 percent.

7.  What is the cost of 40 boards 12 inches wide and 16 ft. long at $20 per m?

8.  Find bank discount on $300 for 90 days (no grace) at 10 percent.

9.  What is the cost of a square farm at $15 per acre, the distance around which is 640 rods?

10. Write a Bank Check, a Promissory Note, and a Receipt.

U.S. History

(Time, 45 minutes)

1.  Give the epochs into which U.S. History is divided.

2.  Give an account of the discovery of America by Columbus.

3.  Relate the causes and results of the Revolutionary War.

4.  Show the territorial growth of the United States.

5.  Tell what you can of the history of Kansas.

6.  Describe three of the most prominent battles of the Rebellion.

7.  Who were the following: Morse, Whitney, Fulton, Bell, Lincoln, Penn, and Howe?

8.  Name events connected with the following dates: 1607, 1620, 1800, 1849, and 1865?


(Time, one hour)

1.  What is meant by the following: Alphabet, phonetic orthography, etymology, syllabication?

2.  What are elementary sounds? How classified?

3.  What are the following, and give examples of each: Trigraph, subvocals, diphthong, cognate letters and linguals?

4.  Give four substitutes for caret 'u'.

5.  Give two rules for spelling words with final 'e'. Name two exceptions under each rule.

6.  Give two uses of silent letters in spelling. Illustrate each.

7.  Define the following prefixes and use in connection with a word: Bi, dis, mis, pre, semi, post, non, inter, mono, super.

8.  Mark diacritically and divide into syllables the following, and name the sign that indicates the sound: Card, ball, mercy, sir, odd, cell, rise, blood, fare, last.

9.  Use the following correctly in sentences, Cite, site, sight, fane, fain, feign, vane, vain, vein, raze, raise, rays.

10. Write 10 words frequently mispronounced and indicate pronunciation by use of diacritical marks and by syllabication.


(Time, one hour)

1.  What is climate? Upon what does climate depend?

2.  How do you account for the extremes of climate in Kansas?

3.  Of what use are rivers? Of what use is the ocean?

4.  Describe the mountains of N.A.

5.  Name and describe the following: Monrovia, Odessa, Denver, Manitoba, Hecla, Yukon, St. Helena, Juan Fermandez, Aspinwall and Orinoco.

6.  Name and locate the principal trade centers of the U.S.

7.  Name all the republics of Europe and give capital of each.

8.  Why is the Atlantic Coast colder than the Pacific in the same latitude?

9.  Describe the process by which the water of the ocean returns to the sources of rivers.

10. Describe the movements of the earth. Give inclination of the earth.


We would like to see a few TEACHERS take this test today.

Michigan Education Code For Homeschooling

This is not intended to be legal advice and is distributed for information purposes only. Check for updates at your public library and on the Michigan State Department of Education's page for: Information on Home Schools.

Compulsory attendance - between 6 and 16 years of age.

Application - You do NOT have to request a Non-Public School Membership Reporting Form

Parental Qualifications - (3)(a) Be a teacher or homeschool with one or claim religious exemption, or (3)(f) No requirements

Testing - None

Curriculum - The state does not regulate the content of the basic courses.

Reporting - None required

Michigan's Compulsory School Attendance Law

This law states that "every parent, guardian, or other person in this state having control and charge of a child from the age of 6 to the child's 16th birthday, shall send that child to the public schools during the entire school year" (MCL 380.1561, Section 1561[1]). Thankfully, Michigan's Compulsory School Attendance law also contains exemptions so that all children between the ages of 6 and 16 do NOT have to attend a public school.

MCL 380.1561, Section 1561(3): "A child is not required to attend a public school in any of the following cases:

(a) The child is attending regularly and is being taught in a state approved non-public school, which teaches subjects comparable to those taught in the public schools to children of corresponding age and grade, as determined by the course of study for the public schools of the district within which the non-public school is located.

...(b), (c) and (d) are exemptions for students living extremely far from transportation to public school, and for those in attendance in confirmation or religious classes...

(e) The child has graduated from high school or has fulfilled all requirements for high school graduation.

(f) The child is being educated at the child's home by his or her parent or legal guardian in an organized educational program in the subject areas of Reading, Spelling, Mathematics, Science, History, Civics, Literature, Writing and English Grammar."

MCL 380.1561, Section 1561(4): "Exemption from the requirement to attend the public school may exist under either subsection (3)(a) or (3)(f), or both, for a child being educated at the child's home by his or her parent or legal guardian."

Home Educating Under Exemption (3)(a) as a Non-Public School

If a family chooses to home school under exemption (3)(a) as a non-public school, they will be under the authority of the MDE. The MDE has authority over all non-public schools and home educators operating under exemption (3)(a) because the Non-Public School Act of 1921 gives them that authority. All non-public schools must comply with the requirements of the Act which includes the following:

388.551 Section 1. The superintendent of public instruction is hereby given supervision of all the private, denominational and parochial schools of this state in such matters and manner as is hereinafter provided... It is the intent of this act that the sanitary conditions of such schools, the courses of study therein, and the qualifications of the teachers thereof shall be of the same standard as provided by the general school laws of the state.

388.553 Section 3. No person shall teach or give instruction in any of the regular or elementary grade studies in any private, denominational or parochial school within this state who does not hold a certificate such as would qualify him or her to teach in like grades of the public schools of the state.

388.555 Section 5. The superintendent of public instruction by himself, his assistants, or any duly authorized agent, shall have authority at any time to investigate and examine into the conditions of any school operating under this act... and it shall be the duty of such school to admit such superintendent... or authorized agent, and to submit for examination its sanitary condition, the records of enrollment of pupils, its courses of studies... and the qualifications of its teachers

What Must a Non-Public School Home School Do to Exist?

To begin a non-public school home school you simply begin home schooling. You do NOT have to ask permission, get a license or even a permit to get started.

You do NOT have to request a Non-Public School Membership Reporting Form (form SM4325).

You must be or use a certified teacher (or claim a religious exemption to this requirement).

You must teach curriculum comparable to that taught in your local school district according to your child's age and grade.

You must provide information regarding "enrollment of pupils, courses of studies and the qualifications of teachers" if, and only if, the Superintendent of Public Instruction or one of his/her "authorized agents" requests this information from you. You may report this information on the SM4325 form, or you may simply submit to the MDE a letter providing the information required by law.

You must submit to investigations and/or examinations by the superintendent or his agent "at any time" at your "non-public school" (your home), unless you are willing to refuse this kind of intrusion into your home and are willing to have the operation of your school suspended, and/or be taken to court over the matter. Although no school official has attempted this type of harassment, anyone choosing this exemption should know that the possibility exists for this to happen.


Home Educating Under Exemption (3)(f) as a Home Education Program

Families choosing to home school under exemption (3)(f) are not required to do any type of reporting to any school official. If you are sent a SM4325 form, you do not have to return it or make any type of response. The MDE has stated that, "If the home school family has not registered, the Department will consider the home school family to be operating under the exemption (f) solely." There is also no law requiring that any information be provided to the local or intermediate school district. Therefore, a home school existing under (3)(f) has no responsibility to provide any information to local school officials.


To begin a home education program you simply begin home schooling. You do NOT have to ask permission, get a license or even a permit. You do NOT have to request a Non-Public School Membership Reporting Form (form SM4325). You must provide your children instruction in the subject areas of Reading, Spelling, Mathematics, Science, History, Civics, Literature, Writing and English Grammar."

The Michigan Department of Education's Position on the Exemptions

The following statements have been taken from a Question & Answer document which the MDE provided to all of the Local and Intermediate School District Superintendents. It details how they have interpreted their role concerning the exemptions available to home educators.

"A home school family choosing to operate under exemption (a) solely, and complying with the requirements of the Non-Public School Act is considered a non-public school."

"A home school family choosing to operate under both exemptions (a) and (f) must comply with the requirements of both (a) and (f)."

"A home school family choosing to operate under exemption (f) solely, is NOT a non-public school and NEED NOT comply with the requirements of the Non-Public School Act."

"The MDE plays no role with this (the family choosing exemption (f) solely) home schooling family."

"There are no minimum qualifications for the teachers (in an exemption (f) solely home school) except that they must be the parents or legal guardians of the children."

"The (exemption (f) solely) home school family does not report to the MDE."

"Question: How does a home school family operating under exemption (f) provide an organized educational program in the subject areas of reading, spelling, mathematics, science, history, civics, literature, writing and English Grammar?

 Answer: The state does not regulate the content of the basic courses."

Moving Toward a Cashless Society
New Dawn
What if you were told that you would no longer be able to use that paper and would be forced to rely upon electronic technology for every single transaction you were to make? How would this affect your freedom and privacy?
"Money - in the traditional sense no longer exists. It died two decades ago when Richard Nixon forever abolished the gold standard. Since then, money as we once knew it has been replaced by an unstable new global medium of exchange that is called 'megabyte money'... megabyte money is a threat not only to our country's long-term growth and prosperity, but to the individual as well."
- Joel Kurtzman, The Death Of Money, 1993
During 1995 we saw some of the most profound changes that the world has ever known move out from the shadows of secrecy and intense preparation. The world of finance led the way in such changes. The most basic area of finance presently undergoing massive change is the very means by which transactions take place - the use of money itself.
We all have used paper to obtain goods and services that we need and desire but have we ever thought about why the use of paper in the form of bank notes entitles us to cars and entertainment and food and shelter? The only way that paper with writing on it can entitle us to goods and services is through our faith in the ability of the Reserve Bank, the government, or private individual to redeem or back that paper with something of value.
What if you were told that you would no longer be able to use that paper and would be forced to rely upon electronic technology for every single transaction you were to make? Would this make you more efficient in the manner in which you conducted your affairs? Would you be pleased to no longer carry paper or coins? How would this affect your freedom and privacy? The following investigation looks at these questions and reveals the alarming dangers to individual freedom posed by the drive toward a cashless society.
The Gradual Replacement of Cash
Kevin SigRift, a U.S. economist at Norwest Corp., says there are many products now available to the general public that are ushering in the use of electronic money in favor of its paper counterpart. "Certainly there are jumps in technology that have facilitated this. For instance, a product that we market at Norwest is a debit card. It is a Visa Card (credit) but it's a debit card, so the money comes out of your checking account," he explained.
The card Mr. SigRift described is a fairly common bank card that allows you to spend your own money from an account you hold and with that same card being able to charge an item while shopping. Mr. SigRift said these cards are being used more often.
"This year [1994] across the country, Visa's volume (the number of times that the Visa Card is used) is up massively. Check writing is up only two percent in comparison. There has been a structural shift from checks to debit cards and credit cards," he said.
Is the convenience of a card that prevents you from going through your pocket fumbling for paper bills and loose change and at the same time allows you to borrow money in an instant worth the interest payment? What if you were able to do all of your banking and purchase from your home? Would your participation in a cashless society then be feasible?
"Nothing would suit me better than to have some route that would allow me to transfer funds from my bank account to somebody else with the touch of a button from my PC (Personal Computer) so that I could do all my banking by sitting in front of my PC. I could do it on the spot instead of having to write out checks," said Al Smith, senior vice president and principal economist for NationsBank. Mr. Smith sees the move toward a totally electronic economy as a sign of the times, a choice of a new generation.
"I think there is an age difference. Most older people don't even know how to type, but the 20 and 30 year-olds think nothing of sitting in front of a PC and typing something and keeping a record. I think the age difference is slowing the transition (from cash to electronic currency) but we are moving pretty rapidly into an age where the chip is the king and check is passe," he said.
The chip that Smith mentioned is the vehicle being used to drive the world into an electronic economy. The June 27, 1994 edition of Fortune magazine spoke of its role: "The heart of this new economy is the tiny microprocessor, the transistor-packed silicon chip that combines with clever software and laser optics to make possible what we globally call the Information Age."
Not everyone is enthralled by some of the ramifications of the Information Age. Paul Richard of the San Diego based National Centre for Financial Education, sees little reason to switch to a cashless system and is concerned about it. Mr. Richard's group provides investment, financial and spending information to the public.
"The real danger is too heavy a hand watching over your life. It's nobody's business where you spend your money so long as you earn it legally. No government entity should know where you spend money for groceries," he said.
The government would be able to monitor purchases, spending habits and businesses patronized, Mr. Richard explained. People have concerns about the misuse of such extensive, personal information, he said, adding, "It's really frightening when you think about it."
Matt Ziebro, manager for Operation Strategy magazine, a monthly financial magazine, said that the move from cash to electronic money is a part of a well-organized attempt to unify the world and control it through its currency. He said the media and government are playing a role in the move to a cashless world and that the government has a history of creating so-called "bad guys" in order to enact certain legislation or influence the public to call for major changes.
Mr. Ziebro cites the "smart card" that will be used as a form of electronic money that has other uses that border on the invasion of privacy. "The 'smart cards' are ready to go. They are able to store information on a credit card with the use of a microchip. The 'smart card' would then hold your bank account, all of your identifying information, everything about you...," he said.
Smart Cards
While large purchases have been the domain of credit cards, small purchases are to be targeted by the so-called 'smart cards' or "stored-value cards".
"Store-value cards have a microchip embedded in them that allows the cards to 'load' money at a bank machine and dispense it through a retailer's equipment at the point of sale," writes Jim Silver in The Australian, 22/8/95. "The goal is to get people to use the new cards for purchases such as fast food, bridge or mass transit tolls and vending-machine items," he adds.
In the future, there will be no need to stop at a tollway. Your special vehicle-mounted transponder, which contains a microchip or a slot for a 'smart card', will be automatically read and an amount deducted when you pass under highway scanners. Other 'smart cards', already developed in Australia, enable you to make a purchase by simply tapping your card on a retailers card-reader. The enclosed microchip and antennae "talks" via radio signals to the card-reader and deducts the required amount.
Who's behind the production of 'smart cards'? According to a report in Bloomberg, "A coalition of United States financial services and technology companies plans to use leading banks to develop stored-value cards that can replace cash for small purchases. MasterCard, 11 banks and two technology companies... said they would form SmartCash, a company that would develop and distribute stored-value cards." A more apt description might be a coalition of various agents of the 'New World Order' seeking to monopolise the distribution of this latest mod-con of control!
Possibly the most frightening aspect of the movement toward a cashless society is the emergence of technology that would allow a microchip to be placed in the human hand that would identify every human being on the planet and allow them to buy and sell without coins, paper or a card.
One expert on this new "biochip" technology charged that the U.S. government will introduce a national I.D. card, supposedly to end illegal immigration, that will extend into commercial activity. This card will be the last step before the government will move to place a biochip in the right hand of every American, said Terry Cook, a retired Los Angeles deputy sheriff and a former fraud investigator.
Already throughout the world, a number of biochip programs have been instituted on animals. In Los Angeles, the name of the program is INFOPET. In this program an I.D. chip is injected into animals in order to identify them. The chip is made by a Destron company based in Boulder, Colorado. Destron was taken over by Hughes Aircraft Corp. of southern California. Hughes is a major defense contractor of the U.S. government. Destron also has licensed computer giant Texas Instruments. These are the two largest manufacturers of this type of technology in the world.
Convenience or conspiracy, you decide. But like it or not the cashless society is on its way. Those who still disbelieve should go through their records asking themselves, "How did I make my last purchase, cash or credit?"


Emerson Review 2003


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